A product’s wholesale bulk merchandise pricing is the low cost at which it is sold in large quantities to retailers. It’s common for the wholesale price to be lower than the retail price. The earnings from this markup are what the shopkeeper relies on to stay in business. Businesses benefit from “economies of scale” when they sell large quantities. Compared to selling ten pieces to 10 distinct consumers, the costs associated with producing, packaging, promoting, and distributing a product to a single buyer of 10 units are significantly lower. Because of this economic theory, wholesalers often sell to retailers at prices below retail.